Simulation of multi-fluid flows (Multiphase Phenomena and Cfd Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processes) are often complex and requires complex mathematical treatment at the interfaces defining the fluid boundaries. Modeling the interfacial effects have been the core research for multi-fluid researchers. Often, a typical multi-scale phenomena that needs to be simulated is broken down into different zones identified by the acting scales and then "modeled" based on the acting physics. The work is still on-going but has definitely met with a lot of success and is often the default setting in major industrial practices [Comparison of different model approaches for the simulation of multiphase processes [An article from: Atmospheric Environment]).
I have come across the smash-project some time ago and thought this post on multifluid modeling will get a good facelift starting with a decent description of this modeling project.
As stated in their website: "Smash is a common project between INRIA and the University of Provence. The main topic of our project focuses on problems related to mathematical and numerical modeling of heterogeneous flows such as multiphase media, granular materials or reactive flows with mass transfer" presents a good description of the team goal. The website contains in-depth details of the applied methods (with assumptions yes..., mathematical treatment and aspects of parallel / grid computing)
Theses work following this project are listed here
and publication description: http://ralyx.inria.fr/2006/Raweb/smash/bibliography.html
With reference to multi-fluid flow modeling and numerical analysis, the work of the Center for Risk studies and safety is a must read.
Their website http://www.crss.ucsb.edu/ gives a complete picture of the their code MUSIC and associated publications and presentations made at major conferences and journals.
The link: http://www.crss.ucsb.edu/music/LEVEL0/ lists all their publications and reports...i had bookmarked their information several years back and continue to look at their recent development in numerical analysis.
The papers (on multifluid analysis) from the 6th int. conf on CFD (Norway) can be downloaded from
I noted some papers which can be used for referencing and for extracting some finer numeric details while performing multifluid calculations include
1. Simulation of flow behavior in bubble column:
2. CFD modeling in gas fluidized beds
(Take a look at another papers on CFD work on fluidized bed:
3. 2D/3D investigations of dispersion and mass transfer coefficients in a Eulerian multifluid model
4. Evaluation of num methods for solving population balance eqn
There are several other nice papers available in the area of Environment/Combustion, fundamental methods and validation, some aspects of industrial CFD, oil and gas systems..
Nice application : Cyclone separators (gas-liquid) type
I normally tend to download the entire directory and keep it in my repository for future references ..even if i dont need them now. These papers are worth looking at and most of the time saves us lot of times when modeling similar to these are required to be computed.
For all those looking at ( or working with ) multifluid methods, the following paper can definitely be considered as a bible ;)
Also, Kunz's paper: http://www.personal.psu.edu/rfk102/PROF/JCPpaper/jcpfinal.pdf
Other publications of interest
1. http://www.cimec.org.ar/ojs/index.php/mc/article/view/2827/2764 (CFD in Trickle bed reactor)
2. http://www.sintef.no/units/matek/2420/242025/ (Nice presentations on multifluid - granular flow etc!)
3. http://www.opensourcecfd.com/conference2008/media/proceedings/OSCIC-08_CarneiroJoao.pdf (openFoam based polydispersed flow modeling)
4. http://www.cfd.com.au/cfd_conf99/papers/030LIOV.PDF (free surface flows in metallurgical vessels)
5. http://www.nea.fr/html/nsd/reports/2007/nea6298/Technical_Session_B1_Advanced_Reactors/7-Kanghs_PWR.pdf (CFD : subcooled flow under high steam flux)
I would post some more research articles that is focused on 1. Numerics 2. Applications.
Some nice books for reference on MP flows validation and application:
1. Improvements in multiphase flow measurement.(Measurement Matters)(Column): An article from: Pipeline & Gas Journal
2. Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow
3. Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow
4. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3
If you have any queries or publications that you think should be posted in this regard, kindly let me know. Sharing the knowledge is the only way to excellence !!