Modeling of multi-fluid flows is a complex task. Especially, identifying if the presented multiphase system can

be modeled with dilute particle or otherwise, can sometimes be a daunting task. Lagrangian type flows are normally encountered in spray simulations, in fluidized bed or even in snow transport applications as pointed out by a CFD-Online user.(Information on the treatment can be found in Intermediate Dynamics for Engineers: A Unified Treatment of Newton-Euler and Lagrangian Mechanics and/or Theory & Problems of Lagrangian Dynamics With a Treatment of Euler's Equations of Motion, Hamilton's Equations, & Hamilton's Principles, )

http://www.cfd-online.com/Forums/fluent/71643-discrete-phase-modeling-coupled-uncoupled.html

The formulation of Eulerian multi-fluid approach is much complex in comparison to the Euler-Lagrangian type work.This is primarily due to the fact that more interaction at the continuum level is expected out of the former,and in the latter, complexities may occur based on the coupling that one seeks: one-way to four-way coupling.

For those who are working on model-picking and in the stage of deciding to go with Euler-euler or Euler-

Lagrangian type: This observation may be of help.

http://www.netl.doe.gov/events/06conferences/mfr_workshop/SummaryT3.pdf

The issues in Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation of complex transport of multiphase flow is elaborated in the following presentation.

http://wiki.siam.org/siag-gs/images/d/df/Russell.pdf

In particular, the presenation above discusses the use of Lagrangian advection, and adjoint characteristics of the variables. Detailed conceptualtopics are well dealt. Nice to have this reference while writing a journal!

Several aspects of dealing with the multiple scales in Multiphase flows while modeling using Euler-Lag type situation is presented here.

http://www.cmla.ens-cachan.fr/fileadmin/Documentation/Prepublications/2009/CMLA2009-10.pdf

A nice research article on Euler-Lagrangian modeling to simulate particulate flows can be found from

the archives of stanford research division:

http://ctr.stanford.edu/ResBriefs03/apte_mahesh_lundgren.pdf

Details of atomization simulations using Eul-Lag methods can be obtained from Atomization simulations using an Eulerian-VOF-Lagrangian method (SuDoc NAS 1.26:201983) or A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows (SuDoc NAS 1.26:196785)

Presentation on modeling multi-phase flows with underlying assumptions is also available.

http://www.chalmers.se/am/SV/forskning/forskningsavdelningar/stromningslara/siamuf/seminarium-arkiv/seminarium-oktober-2006/downloadFile/attachedFile_9_f0/Modelling_of_multiphase_flows.pdf?nocache=1202900513.0

The multiflow : a fully coupled multiphase flow solver provides some introduction to multiphase applications

http://www.multiflow.org/node/3

similar to a STAR intro: http://www.cd-adapco.com/press_room/dynamics/18/eulerian.html

Fluent stuff: www.bakker.org/dartmouth06/engs150/14-multi.ppt

For someone trying to use Euler-Lagrangian type particulate affair: this publication may be a good reference.

http://www.iahr.org/publications/assets/jhr38-5/Yeganeh_Gotoh_Sakai.pdf

Influence of Eulerian multiphase model parameters on the runs for a spouted bed grain dryer ? is nicely available from this journal article

http://www.task.gda.pl/files/quart/TQ2008/01-02/tq112e-e.pdf

For those industrial guys looking at CFD as an option, the article here may suggest why?

http://www.processinnovation.com/pdf/Multiphase_CFD.pdf

This book Multiphase reacting flows: modelling and simulation (CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences) provides a good understanding of the reacting multiphase flows with elaborate simulation examples.

Applications of Eulerian-Lagrangian modeling is quite prominent in the industrial settings where a compromise has to be made between the computational time vs computer resources in order to make quick decisions.

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